Comparative depiction of ancient theories on the order of the cosmos
Figure I: The Ptolemaic system shows the Earth at the center of the cosmos, surrounded by seven spheres representing the planets and their metals
- Moon - Silver
- Mercury - Mercury
- Venus - Copper
- The Sun - Gold
- Mars - Iron
- Jupiter - Tin
- Saturn - Lead
Above them is the static fixed stars with the zodiac above even them.
Figure II: Plato viewed the Cosmos as a divine Cosmic Soul which rotated on its own axis. Placing the sun directly above the moon.
Figure III: Vitruvius believed Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun, which in turn, revolved around the earth.
Figure IV & V: Tycho Brahe implemented a system that was brought forward from two centers. The sun revolves around the earth, which was a static center, but at the same time serves as the center for the five other planets. As Brahe puts it, ” When the sun comes along, all the planets go around with it.”
Figure VI: Copernicus puts the sun back at the center of our world in 1543, which corresponded to the Hermetic belief that the upward movement of matter from the outermost coarse state of Saturn lead to the highest level of sublimation, Gold.
Athanasius Kircher, Iter Exstaticum